Peter Petrovich Doroshin
(1823 - 1875)
The official flag of the Russia-American Company.
Source: Chevigny, 1965
Russian mining engineer and geologist Peter Petrovich Doroshin is the man associated with discovery of placer gold during the last stages of Russian-American Company activities in Alaska. Generally western historians have regarded him as just a curiosity, because his efforts did not result in significant mineral resource development in Russian America. Some even suggest that his failure to find commercial quantities of gold in Alaska contributed to the decision by Imperial Russia to sell Alaska to the United States in 1867. In reality, Doroshin was a hard working and competent mining engineer (termed geognost) that successfully mined gold in California on behalf of the Russian-America Company, verified significant coal resources throughout southern Alaska, mined albeit modest amounts of placer gold on the Kenai Peninsula, and provided the first written observations of the highly profitable 'ice mining' export ventures that took place near Kodiak, Sitka and other locales. Upon his return to Russia, he would serve his country with distinction, successfully managing several mines in the Ural Mountains and the Tula area near Moscow.
Peter Doroshin was born in 1823 in the city of Petrozavodsk, the capital of Karelia in the northwest corner of the Russian Empire. He was born into a family of Russian nobility—then a prerequisite for obtaining a formal education in Imperial Russia. Doroshin completed primary and secondary school training in a school named 'Olonets Governat Male Gymnasium' in Petrozavodsk, a male-only institution of learning. In 1841, at the age of 18, Doroshin enrolled in the Mining Engineering Corps of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Upon his graduation from the St. Petersburg Mining Institute (graduate #440) in 1845, he was given a rank of Lieutenant in the 'Corps of Mining Engineers', an Imperial Russian institution analogous to a military corps. Until 1868, Mining engineers in Imperial Russia had military ranks. He was assigned work in a placer mining recovery plant near Nerchinsk, the administrative center of present day Zabaykaisky Krai in southern Siberia, about 640 kilometers east of Lake Baikal. Nerchinsk is the site of the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk, between Russia and China, which then restricted Russian expansion into the Amur River Basin. The gold-mining enterprises near Nerchinsk, where Doroshin worked, were first developed by the Butin family, merchants of Moorish origins that began mining gold near Nerchinsk in the 18th Century. Doroshin's work assignment lasted a little over a year, but it did give him exposure to technical issues related to the mining and recovery of placer gold.
Events in Alaska, Russia's colony on the North American continent, would enter into Doroshin's life and professional career. Several notable Russian visionaries had arrived in Russian America during the early 19th Century, who sought to improve the economy of the territory and the health of its inhabitants. Historian Hector Chevigny referred to this time period of Russian- American history as 'The Flowering'. For more than 30 years, beginning in the 1820s, a Russian Orthodox Priest, Ioann Veniaminov, would work with several Russian American Governors to construct new churches, roads, schools, and hospitals throughout the Alaskan mainland and in the Aleutians. During his tenure in Alaska, he saw to it that most of the colony's children, many of them Native Americans and creoles, received an adequate education. Veniaminov would return to Russia, and at the age of 70, he would be elected the Metropolitan of Moscow, then the highest ranking religious leader of the Russian Orthodox faith. In 1840, Ferdinand Wrangell published his years of research on the flora and fauna of Alaska and provided the first detailed ethnographic descriptions of human populations in the territory. During 1842-1844, Lieutenant L. A. Zagoskin would complete remarkably accurate, even exhaustive, ethnographic, botanical, faunal, and geographic investigations in the Yukon and Kuskokwim River basins of Alaska; his source documents are still used to this day. Under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the RAC undertook investigations of the geology of Russian-America by noted scientist Ilia Voznesenski, who studied geology and mineralogy in the colony. The renowned Estonian geologist, Constantine Grewingk, worked with Voznesenski to provide the first geologic map of Alaska (in 1849). Mikhail D. Teben'kov completed magnetic and meteorological studies out of New Archangel (Sitka), and constructed standard charts and a hydrographical handbook of coastal areas so important to the mariners of the day. Engraved and printed in Sitka by the creole artists Terentiev and Kadin, Teben'kov's thirty nine (39) navigational charts are valuable collector's items today. Teben'kov became the Governor of Russian America in 1845, and it was he who requested technical expertise from St. Petersburg with regards to mineral resource investigations in the vast Territory.
Prior to European contact, mineral resources were known and used by Native Americans in Alaska. When Vitus Bering first made his initial Alaska landing in a sheltered bay near Cape St. Elias on July 18th, 1741, he noted on the beach: "a whetstone on which appeared copper knives had been sharpened". Bering later observed at a nearby abandoned camp: "deserted huts, a fireplace, an arrow, and edge tools of copper". In 1779, the French navigator Maurelle, under contract to Spain, reported Natives in the same Mount St. Elias area carried with them arrowheads and spear points manufactured from copper, "which made the Spaniards suspect mines of this metal there". In 1787, Captain James Cook, while performing a reconnaissance of the inlet that now bears his name would observe: "the Natives know how to forge iron and work copper". The Russian explorer Lisiansky saw near the present site of Cordova: "a thin plate of copper more than three feet in length and 20 inched in breadth and decorated with figurines". During the Russian-America period, several native tribes would trade lumps of native copper to the RAC, presumably from sources in the Wrangell Mountains, for various goods available at Sitka and Kodiak. Reports of iron and coal occurrences were provided by native tribes to the RAC.
On February 2nd, 1847, Doroshin was sent to an administrative center for the Russian America Company in St. Petersburg that focused on 'geographic and geologic research and discoveries of building materials'. It was there that he was given his assignment to undergo prospecting for gold, coal, copper and various mineral resources in the North American colony. He arrived in New Archangel (Sitka) on April 15th, 1848. From there, he was sent by the governing board of geological and geographic research of the Russian America Company (RAC) to explore Kodiak Island and initiate work on the Kenai Peninsula.
From April 20th to September 22nd, 1848, Doroshin, along with six Russians (Europeans), two Creoles (mixed Russian Native American), and four Tlingits, prospected the Kenai Peninsula in search of initially placer gold. A.H. Brooks believed that Doroshin was following up on reports of placer gold found by previous explorers. Doroshin's group moved up the Kenai River to Kenai Lake, and a small camp was established near the present site of Cooper Landing. The entire group was engaged in 'washing'; i.e., the working of stream gravels with a 'Lotok' or Russian gold pan. Sources differ as to the amount of gold recovered. One Russian source indicates that about 1 pound (12 troy ounces) of placer gold was recovered during the prospecting in 1848, but others indicate less. A. H. Brooks reported that Doroshin "sluiced out a few ounces of gold"; never-the-less, it was the first gold known to have been recovered in Alaska. In any case, Doroshin returned to Sitka to discuss his generally negative findings with the governor.
The first geologic map of Alaska and the northwestern Pacific Coast of North America was published by Constantine Grewingk in 1849, during the time period that Peter Doroshin explored Alaska for mineral resources. Based on journal logs, both professionals did communicate with each other although they have never met. Grewingk's work was a compilation of other workers observations; he never conducted field work in Alaska. The text that accompanied the map reveals a sophisticated understanding of volcanic arc rocks, granitic intrusions, metamorphic rocks, and distribution of coal-bearing sedimentary basins. The map was published in German.
In early December, 1848, news had arrived in Sitka that rich discoveries of gold had been made further to the south along the west coast of North America, in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Governor Teben'kov decided to send a vessel to San Francisco to both acquire goods needed in Sitka and to investigate the nature of the gold deposits being mined in California. Doroshin and 10 RAC employees sailed to California aboard the Prince Menshikov, which arrived in the overnight boom town of San Francisco on December 21, 1848. In January, 1849, Doroshin set out with his crew of six European prospectors and four Tlingits up the Sacramento River basin to gold diggings along the Yuba River. Because of the rapid influx of prospectors, the group encountered a lack of law and order in the new gold camp. Several shootings took place but none of Doroshin's crew were killed or injured. In just 49 days, nearly 12 pounds (144 troy ounces) of gold had been recovered with their 'Lotok' gold pans. With the sale of the gold and goods brought from Sitka, Doroshin was able to purchase a three-masted vessel for the RAC—renamed the Shelikov—which he returned to Sitka on later in 1849.
In 1850, Doroshin resumed prospecting for placer gold in the Kenai River basin, but did not find commercial concentrations of the yellow metal. Late in the season, gold bearing quartz boulders had been found in several river drainages, indicating the presence of hard rock gold resources, but prospecting in the upland areas was curtailed, because of numerous forest fires that raged across the Kenai Peninsula in 1850.
In 1851, Doroshin returned one last time to the Kenai Peninsula with the intention of following up colors found the previous year. He and his crew spent 66 days in the field, but he was not able to reach the core of the mountains where he believed the lode gold-quartz veins would be found. In his report, he states that the farther upstream he went, the larger were the grains of gold but nowhere was it in paying quantities.
Indications of gold were investigated by Doroshin at other sites besides the Kenai Peninsula. He described one occurrence as "in a mountain range north of Cook Inlet where gold is associated with quartz veins in slate". Another was in quartz veins near Yakutat not far from the base of Mount St. Elias. This latter site featured "gold associated with diorite". In both cases, we really don't know how much prospecting was done. Doroshin's investigations were limited by an exclusive mineral lease on a part of Alaska's mainland granted by the RAC to the Hudson Bay Company that extended from the Yakutat area southward to significant parts of the southeast panhandle, including the present Juneau area. The RAC-Hudson Bay lease prevented Doroshin access to these areas.
During 1852, Doroshin set to work with the intention of finding a commercial coal deposit for the RAC. He was aided by reconnaissance work completed by Ilia Voznesenski several years earlier, who had noted coal seams in the Cook Inlet and Alaska Peninsula regions. Doroshin explored a large part of the coastal areas and located deposits that would later become significant Alaskan coal resources. He shipped his many bulk coal samples to the St. Petersburg Mining Institute, where they were analyzed. The first coal bed examined was an 8 foot seam at Port Graham, which analyzed:
|Volatile Matter||45.87 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||42.91 (%)|
|Heat Units||4,294 (Calories)|
In Kachemak Bay, he inspected several thin coal seams and found one thicker seam, which analyzed:
|Volatile Matter||48.53 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||38.91 (%)|
|Heat Units||4,131 (Calories)|
Doroshin collected plant fossils from the Cook Inlet coal-bearing rock sections and submitted them to Professor Heppert of Breslau, Germany, who concluded that the Cook Inlet coals were of Miocene age. These results, along with those of Grewingk, are among the first scientific fossil identifications made from Alaskan materials. From Kachemak Bay, Doroshin sailed along the entire Cook Inlet to its head and then down the western side to Kamishak Bay. There, he left the boat and struck out over the mountains on foot to Lake Iliamna making notes on the geological formations that he encountered. His party obtained a boat on the lake and then sailed down the Kvichak River to Bristol Bay and then sailed up the Naknek River to the Mishket Rapids. At this point, he left his boat and crossed over the mountains on foot to Katmai. Eventually coal from Kukak Bay was sampled which yielded:
|Volatile Matter||34.5 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||52.44 (%)|
|Heat Units||5,774 (Calories)|
Doroshin became quite enthusiastic about his Kukak Bay find, which he later regarded as the best quality coal found during his Alaskan coal investigations. Doroshin continued his work along the Alaska Peninsula. He sampled coals on Unga Island and near Chignik Lagoon—in areas now known to be part of the Chignik-Herendeen Bay coal field. He noted that coals on Unga Island had too much pyrite and thus would likely exhibit acidic conditions upon burning; he also noted the presence of oil seeps and naphtha within several coal-bearing sections. These observations were scrutinized during oil and gas exploration activities on the Alaska Peninsula during the mid-20th Century—more than 100 years later. Doroshin believed that samples taken from seams near Port Moller exhibited physical characteristics similar to those sampled in the Kachemak Bay-Cook Inlet area. He also obtained samples from Korovin Bay, Atka Island, which contained:
|Volatile Matter||52.41 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||45.28 (%)|
|Heat Units||4,893 (Calories)|
Doroshin continued investigations further to the north in Norton Sound, and obtained high quality coal samples from Cape Lisburne in Northern Alaska—now known to be a very large province with bituminous coals. He also obtained coal samples from the east-central Seward Peninsula, presumably from what we know as the Chicago Creek Field south of Deering. Late in the season, he decided to investigate coal resources in Southeastern Alaska. He sampled several coal seams on Admiralty Island and obtained promising results from a seam on Kotznahoo Inlet, Chatham Strait, which yielded:
|Volatile Matter||38.08 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||50.73 (%)|
|Heat Units||4,800 (Calories)|
Finally Doroshin reasoned that in order to compare the commercial viability of Alaska's coals with other potential competitors, he inspected and sampled a coal mine at Winter Harbor near Vancouver, British Columbia, which yielded:
|Volatile Matter||38.67 (%)|
|Fixed Carbon||44.00 (%)|
|Heat Units||5,009 (Calories)|
Doroshin's coal investigations field investigations above the 61st parallel would take much of 1852, with field work beginning in February and ending in early December. Doroshin concluded that several of the Alaskan coal seams, including those in the Cook Inlet Region, could probably compete with coals from the Vancouver area. He submitted a final report to the RAC that recommended, on the basis of demand for coal in San Francisco, that the coal seam at Port Graham on Cook Inlet be developed.
Based on Doroshin's recommendations, the RAC pursued a coal mining development at Port Graham. Underground development was begun in 1855, and by 1858, underground pumps, and surface infrastructure was completed. Several thousand feet of workings were driven into the coal seam. Coal was initially shipped to San Francisco and later used in steam boilers of ships plying Alaskan waters. Records show that the Port Graham coal mine had 131 employees with the mine producing about 35 tons coal per day. Seasonal production averaged about 1,000 tons annually from 1857 to 1861 or a total of 5,000 tons coal produced. In 1860, a fire severely damaged surface infrastructure, including mining apparatus. The mine did not make a profit and closed in 1861. Several reasons have been given for the closure. The RAC brought in a few experienced miners from Germany, but most of the labor force was not adept to mining practices. The 1860 mine fire extensively damaged several pieces of equipment, some of which were never fully repaired. Historian Frank Golder believed that it was mainly competition from other Pacific Rim coal sources that doomed the Port Graham coal mine. For example, Japanese coal from Sakhalin Island was selling for $5/ton FOB and the newly opened coal from New South Wales, Australia was selling for $8/ton FOB. Canadian coal from Vancouver, which dominated the west coast coal trade, was being sold at $12/ton FOB. It cost the RAC nearly $15/ton just to produce the coal at Port Graham.
In 1862, the entrepreneur Ialmar Furuhelm leased the subsurface estate of the RAC throughout Alaska, including the coal at Port Graham, for seven years. The arrangement was not completed until 1863, and although he began repairs on the Port Graham mining equipment, Furuhelm never produced any coal. In truth, Furuhelm probably did not have enough time to find, explore, develop, and produce mineral resources prior to the 1867 Alaska Purchase.
Furuhelm did, however, actively participate in one of the last profitable ventures in Russian Alaska—the commercial extraction of ice. Doroshin was one of the first to witness the colorful chapter in Russian-American history. In the days before Clarence Birdseye, who discovered the technologies of refrigeration, food was commonly stored in cool conditions to extend periods of safe usage. In 1850, Ice was an expensive luxury in the booming gold rush town of San Francisco and enterprising Californians thought of Alaska as a source for ice. The initial contract was made in 1851 between a party of San Francisco businessman known as Alaska Ice, Inc. and Nikolai Rosenberg, the Chief financial director of the RAC. An initial contract for 250 tons @ $75/ton. The shipment from Sitka to San Francisco was made in February, 1852. Although specific costs and values are not specifically stated, the first shipment was said to be "highly profitable". A contract was made whereas the RAC would provide at least 1,000 tons annually at $35/ton for the American-Russian Commercial Company, a San Francisco based firm. From 1852 to 1862, nearly 50,000 tons of ice was shipped from Kodiak Island and from Sitka to San Francisco and nearly every shipment was profitable. The historian Bancroft stated that two ice houses were constructed near Sitka and three near Kodiak. Later shipments of ice from Alaska during the American Civil War were reduced, averaging about 3,000 tons annually.
Peter Doroshin, writing to General Helmerson of the Russian Imperial Academy in 1855, provides the first descriptions of the secretive ice mining activities by Alaska Ice, Inc. on Woody Island near Kodiak. He reported:
"On Woody Island in Kodiak Harbor, during the last several years, horses have been kept to perform labor in connection with the mysterious ice mining company, and for the use of these horses, a field of 12 acres of oats is annually sown".According to the historian Victor Farrar, the real reason for the ice contract was to insulate Alaska from a possible occupation and annexation by Great Britain through her North American surrogate, Canada. The reasoning was that Great Britain would not risk annexation of Alaska during the 1854-56 Crimean War if significant numbers of Americans were active in Alaska business and other activities. Whether or not the ice business was constructed to deceive Great Britain is somewhat irrelevant. Selling Alaska ice to San Francisco was a highly profitable enterprise and continued long after the war time emergency had passed. Some historians have suggested that this activity contributed to the popular view held by many Americans of the mid-19th Century that Alaska was "Seward's Ice Box".
The ice mining venture would claim a final place in history. After the United States presented the initial offer of $7 Million to the Russian government in 1867 for the purchase of Alaska, both sides initially agreed to that amount. But the RAC and the American-Russian Commercial Company strongly objected on the grounds that the profitable ice mining venture was not included in the transaction. After a financial re-evaluation, it was then determined that the value of the ice mining venture, as well as some minor adjustments for fur enterprises, totaled about $200,000 and this amount was added to the United States offer to the Russian Empire—thus the final purchase price of $7,200,000.
Mid-18th Century map titled "An Exact Chart used by Captain Bering in his Travels Across Siberia", depicts of the route across Siberia from Lake Baikal to the seaport of Okhotsk, which was used by the Russian-America Company to conduct commerce and resupply company of holdings in Alaska and along the west coast of North America. Doroshin would return to St. Petersburg in 1853 along some of this route but would start at Ayan further to the south along the coastline. The map illustrates the long travel times required by early Russian explorers in North America —From St. Petersburg Mining Institute files.
Peter Doroshin left Alaska in 1853, and sailed from Sitka to Ayan (now located on the coast of Khabarovsk Krai) in June of that year. In March, 1854, he arrived in St. Petersburg only after a nine month journey on foot, coach and by boat across Siberia. From 1854-1856, Doroshin worked on the Estate of Count Bobrinsky near Tula south of Moscow to explore and evaluate coal resources there. The original Count Bobrinsky was a direct descendant of Czarina Catherine the Great, and whose family line became well known in Imperial Russia for much involvement in politics, science, and business activities during the 19th and early 20th Centuries.
Doroshin was promoted to the rank of Captain in the Russian Corps of Mining Engineers on August 30, 1855. In May, 1856, Doroshin was sent to Germany and Belgium to investigate the latest coal mine technologies being used there. When he returned to Russia in 1858, he became more directly involved with actual mining operations. From 1858-1860, Doroshin worked for the Russian Company of Steamships and Trade. In 1859, Doroshin was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
Uniforms of the Corps of Russian Mining Engineers as they appeared in 1855. The uniform in the center is the rank of a junior officer; i.e., a Lieutenant, which is the rank Doroshin had during his work in Alaska. Courtesy of Evgeny Shpikerman and Russian Mining Museum, St. Petersburg. here
From 1860-1865, Doroshin worked out of Ekaterinburg and Perm, where he could provide technical expertise in various mining operations in the Ural Mountains area. In June, 1860, he assumed some management authority of several mining operations in the southern Urals. In December, 1860, he was also appointed as a director of the coal mining operations in Tula south of Moscow, which he had helped evaluate four years previously for the Bobrinsky family. Through 1865, he continued to oversee mining operations in the Urals.
In July of 1865, Doroshin was promoted to the rank of a full colonel in the Russian Corps of Mining Engineers and appointed Chief Mining Engineer for the District of Moscow Province, a distinguished promotion indicative of his success in the Russian mining Industry. On March 2, 1868, he reached the pinnacle of his career when he was promoted to be the Chief of the Russian Naval Mining Office. Although in charge of a naval group, Doroshin simultaneously received the rank of State Councilor because in 1867, the government of Czar Alexander II converted mining engineers from military ranks to civilian ranks—part of a broad reform in civil institutions throughout Russia. In 1871, Doroshin was promoted to the Rank of 'Actual State Councilor', the highest rank that he could have received under the Imperial Russian system.
During his life, Peter Doroshin was awarded two orders of St. Anne, two orders of St. Stanislav, and the 'Light Bronze Metal', the latter recognizing his service in the Crimean War, and finally the St Andrews metal for exemplary service in the Russian Corps of Mining Engineers.
Doroshin was a life-long bachelor. His busy career may have prevented him from pursuing a more domestic side to his life.
Peter Doroshin is often associated with the unsuccessful attempt to develop a mining industry in Alaska. Yet this bright young engineer and geologist was only in Alaska for a brief time at the start of his professional career. After finishing his gold exploration on the Kenai Peninsula and elsewhere in Alaska, he was quoted as saying:
"When I started searching for gold, I knew that the obstacles would be formidable. But I never extinguished hope. Perhaps I have paved a trail for a more successful mining engineer or geologist…who will have available to him more facilities and information…and who will be happier than me."Doroshin certainly made important contributions toward understand Alaska's coal resources, and accomplished important research in the field of Alaskan geology in a very short time. We often refer to Evan Jones as the "Father of Alaska's coal mining industry". Doroshin deserves at least honorable mention as "Father of Alaskan Coal Exploration".
Councilor Peter Petrovich Doroshin died near Moscow in 1875 of unknown causes. He was 52 years old. He is ranked #93 on the list: "Mining Personalities of High Ranks in Pre-Revolutionary Russia" of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute.
Written by Thomas K. Bundtzen, March 9th, 2014
The writer is indebted to Drs. Evgeny Sidorov of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka, Russia, Ms. Larissa Karpova also of Petropavlovsk, Dr. Oleg Valeyev, Chief Geologist of Polymetal International in St. Peterburg and Evgeny Shpikerman, also of St. Petersburg, for providing important information concerning Doroshin's life and career in Russia. Other information was derived from the bibliography listed below, especially the works by A.H. Brooks, A.W. Shiels, Hector Chevigny, Frank Golder and P.A. Tikhmenev.
Alexandrov, E.A., 2005, Russians in North America: Hamden (USA), San Francisco.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 1970, History of Alaska 1730-1885: Hafner Publishing Company, 775 pages.
Bolkhovitnov, N.N., 1996, Russian-American relations and the sale of Alaska, 1834-1867 (Translated by Richard A. Pierce): Alaska History #45; The Limestone Press, Kingston Ontario-Fairbanks, Alaska, 394 pages.
Brooks, A.H., 1953, Blazing Alaska's Trails: University of Alaska Press, 559 pages.
Chevigny, Hector, 1965, Russian America—The Great Alaskan Venture, 1741-1867: The Viking Press, New York, 273 pages.
Dmytryshyn, Basil, and Crownhart-Vaughan, E.A.P., 1979, The End of Russian America—Captain Golovin's Last Report, 1862: Oregon Historical Society, Portland, 247 pages.
Farrar, V.J., 1937, Annexation of Russian America to the United States: Washington D.C., pages 1-2.
Golder, Frank, 1967, Mining in Alaska Before 1867, in, Sherwood, Morgan B., editor, Alaska and its History: University of Washington Press, pages 149-158.
Grewingk, Constantine C. A., 1849, Contributions toward Knowledge of the Orographic and Geognostic Condition of the Northwest Coast of North America—reproduced in English in 2003 by Martin Failk and Fritz Jaensch as: Grewingk's Geology of Alaska and the Northwest Coast of America: Historical Translation Series, Volume 11, Rasmussen Library, Fairbanks, Alaska; 236 pages.
Henderson Daniel, 1944, From the Volga to the Yukon: Hastings House Publishers, New York, 241 pages.
Keithahn, E.L., 1967, Alaska Ice, Inc., in, Sherwood, Morgan B., editor, Alaska and its History: University of Washington Press, pages 173-188.
Michael, H.N., 1967, editor, Lieutenant Zagoskin's Travels in Russian America 1842-1844. Arctic Institute of North America and University of Toronto Press, 358 pages.
Pierce, Rich—ard, 1990, Russian America—A Biographical Dictionary: Ontario-Fairbanks, pages 123-124
Shiels, A.W., 1967, The Purchase of Alaska: University of Alaska Press; Distributed by University of Washington Press, 208 pages.
Tikhmenev, P.A., 1978, A History of the Russian-American Company—Translated by Richard A. Pierce and Alton S. Donnelly: University of Washington Press, 519 pages.